Lever needs to perform to occupy a niche of VR programming. Failure to perform fast is a failure of the language.Table of contents ↑
The benchmarks directory in lever is still a bit of a stub when I am updating this text. So far I've checked the JIT performance against a nbody simulation.
In the samples directory there are already programs that are clearly no longer usable without a working JIT. I can no longer expect to run some of them without JIT enabled.
02. Current performance
There's a rudimentary way to compare performance of CPython and Lever. Python runs a bootstrap compiler and Lever has the same compiler as a library to allow it to run standalone.
Lever is extremely heavy at how it compiles because it uses customizable grammar with a parsing engine. It allows fast, lisp-like experimentation with syntax.
We can trigger python compiler by touching a file we want to benchmark with, then run the compile-lib command.
cheery@ruttunen:~/Documents/lever$ touch lib/c.lc cheery@ruttunen:~/Documents/lever$ time python setup.py compile-lib Compiling libraries for lever real 0m1.603s user 0m1.540s sys 0m0.028s cheery@ruttunen:~/Documents/lever$
Next I wrote a small program that triggers a lever compiler to run on the same file.
import binon, compiler source = dir ++ "lib/c.lc" code = compiler.read_file(source, "lib/c.lc") binon.write_file(dir ++ "out.lc.cb", code)
The results propose that Lever is 4 times slower than python at compiling itself. But it is likely safe to say you could get worse results here.
cheery@ruttunen:~/Documents/lever$ time lever test.lc real 0m7.109s user 0m6.808s sys 0m0.288s cheery@ruttunen:~/Documents/lever$
This indicates rather similar results as in early tests. Worst-case performance of RPython-written language that resembles Python seem to be on the scale of 2 to 20 times slower.
03. Future performance
PyPy has used RPython to provide a language that is faster than Python on many occassions. With a new language there's not the restriction that we would have to fixate on some implementation detail. This likely allows us to provide better results than with PyPy.
We concentrate on narrow scope of software that we want to make fast. Precisely desktop and graphically intensive software. That should help too.
There are also some cases like the vector arithmetic support in runtime that can really turn tables in interesting scenarios into Lever's favor.
04. When it is not enough...
Even if we got near to C speeds with Lever runtime some day, there is still the "not as fast as C" -barrier in using dynamic languages to graphics programming. No matter how it good it looked, it's just not enough when you got to crunch it all the way down.
I see that the problem is not the performance of the language at this point. It's how well and how gradually can you lower out of it? Of course we could prototype everything in Python if it was easy to transition the performance critical code to the form where it performs. There would be huge development gains to get things into place in easy language and walk down from that in steps, rather than having to do a big jump when you get the design right.
For this reason I've picked some features that make Lever easier to translate. When I'll get things far enough for it to be useful, I'll replicate some of RPython's translation framework on Lever and repurpose it to apply on graphics.
There's no plans to get it to replace PyPy though. They are doing lots of good things and I don't see a reason to replicate the greater work they do with the JIT generation along translation. They are doing whole host of things I don't have to do myself at this point.
It's nice to have a small, sub 10kloc runtime you can hack away with.
05. Platform performance considerations
There's chance that WebAssembly succeeds to provide a generic language target. This might happen somewhere between 2 to 6 years.
It will be very likely feasible to take this into account and have Lever translate to WebAssembly. It requires that they come up with their GC-integration and call/cc -support.
There's very, very long run to this. But it would allow both the translation framework and Lever itself use WebAssembly as a target language. That would be sort of nice.
06. Background on performance.text
I made this text when someone mentioned Lever should perform at the Phoronix.com -article comments.
I realised I should probably mention my plans to get Lever to perform somewhere.